What is Two Factor Authentication and how does 2FA keep us safe?

This month we are focusing on the relief that two factor authentication brings to our accounts.  Its most likely your bank has already enforced 2FA on your login to your checking account, and most other sites offer it as an option.  Some of the most important accounts include your email account, social networks such as facebook, and any other account that has sensitive information or has the ability to reach out to your contacts.